IS102622009CONCRETE MIX DESIGN – INDIAN STANDARD METHOD
The following points should be remembered before proportioning a concrete mix a per IS102622009.
 This method of concrete mix proportioning is applicable only for ordinary and standard concrete grades.
 The air content in concrete is considered as nil.
 The proportioning is carried out to achieve specified characteristic compressive strength at specified age, workability of fresh concrete and durability requirements.
This method of concrete mix design consist of following 11 steps
 Design specification
 Testing of materials
 Calculating target strength for mix proportioning
 Selecting water/cement ratio
 Calculating water content
 Calculating cement content
 Finding out volume proportions for Coarse aggregate & fine aggregate
 Mix calculations
 Trial mixing and
10. Workability measurement (using slump cone method)
11. Repeating step 9 & 10 until all requirements is fulfilled.
Let us discuss all of the above steps in detail
Step1. Design Specifications
This is the step where we gather all the required information for designing a concrete mix from the client. The data required for mix proportioning is as follows.
 Grade designation (whether M10, M15, M20 etc)
 Type of cement to be used
 Maximum nominal size of aggregates
 Minimum & maximum cement content
 Maximum watercement ratio
 Workability
 Exposure conditions (As per IS456Table4)
 Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing
 Method of transporting & placing
 Early age strength requirement (if any)
 Type of aggregate (angular, sub angular, rounded etc)
 Type of admixture to be used (if any)
Step2. Testing of Materials
The table given below shows the list of most necessary tests to be done on cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and admixture. After doing the test, store the test data for further calculation.
Concrete Ingredients 
Tests to be done 

Cement 
Specific gravity 
— 
— 
— 
Coarse aggregate 
Specific gravity 
Water absorption 
Free surface moisture 
Sieve analysis 
Fine aggregate 
Specific gravity 
Water absorption 
Free surface moisture 
Sieve analysis 
Admixture (if any) 
Specific gravity 
— 
— 
— 
Step3. Target Strength Calculation
Calculate the target compressive strength of concrete using the formula given below.
f_{ck}’ = f_{ck} + 1.65s
Where,
f_{ck}’ = Target compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm^{2}.
f_{ck} = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm^{2}. (same as grade of concrete, see table below)
s = Standard deviation
The value of standard deviation, given in the table below, can be taken for initial calculation.
Sl.No 
Grade of Concrete 
Characteristic compressive strength (N/mm^{2}) 
Assumed standard deviation (N/mm^{2}) 
1. 
M10 
10 
3.5 
2. 
M15 
15 

3. 
M20 
20 
4.0 
4. 
M25 
25 

5. 
M30 
30 
6.0 
6. 
M35 
35 

7. 
M40 
40 

8. 
M45 
45 

9. 
M50 
50 

10. 
M55 
55 
Step4. Selection of WaterCement Ratio
For preliminary calculation, water cement ratio as given is IS456Table 5 (also given below) for different environmental exposure condition, may be used.
Note: Use Table1 for finding out watercement ratio of Plain Concrete and use Table2 for finding out watercement ratio of Reinforced Concrete.
Table 1 

Sl.No.  Environmental Exposure Condition 
Plain Concrete 

Minimum Cement Content (kg/m3)  Maximum Free WaterCement Ratio  Minimum Grade of Concrete  
1  Mild  220  0.60  — 
2  Moderate  240  0.60  M15 
3  Severe  250  0.50  M20 
4  Very Severe  260  0.45  M20 
5  Extreme  280  0.40  M25 
Table 2 

Sl.No.  Environmental Exposure Condition 
Reinforced Concrete 

Minimum Cement Content (kg/m3)  Maximum Free WaterCement Ratio  Minimum Grade of Concrete  
1  Mild  300  0.55  M20 
2  Moderate  300  0.50  M25 
3  Severe  320  0.45  M30 
4  Very Severe  340  0.45  M35 
5  Extreme  360 
Refer the table given below (As per IS456) to choose right type of environment depending upon different exposure conditions to concrete.
Sl.No  Environment  Exposure condition 
1  Mild  Concrete surfaces protected against weather or aggressive conditions, except those situated in coastal areas. 
2  Moderate  Concrete surfaces sheltered from severe rain or freezing whilst wetConcrete exposed to condensation and rain
Concrete continuously under water Concrete in contact or buried under non aggressive soil/ground water Concrete surfaces sheltered from saturated salt air in coastal area 
3  Severe  Concrete surfaces exposed to severe rain, alternate wetting and drying or occasional freezing whilst wet or severe condensationConcrete completely immersed in sea water
Concrete exposed to coastal environment 
4  Very severe  Concrete surfaces exposed to sea water spray, corrosive fumes or severe freezing condition whilst wetConcrete in contact with or buried under aggressive subsoil/ground water 
5  Extreme  Surface members in tidal zoneMembers in direct contact with liquid/solid aggressive chemicals 
Step5. Selection of Water Content
Selection of water content depends upon a number of factors such as
 Aggregate size, shape & texture
 Workability
 Water cement ratio
 Type of cement and its amount
 Type of admixture and environmental conditions.
Factors that can reduce water demand are as follows
 Using increased aggregate size
 Reducing water cement ratio
 Reducing the slump requirement
 Using rounded aggregate
 Using water reducing admixture
Factors that can increase water demand are as follows
 Increased temp. at site
 Increased cement content
 Increased slump
 Increased water cement ratio
 Increased aggregate angularity
 Decrease in proportion of the coarse aggregate to fine aggregate
The quantity of maximum mixing water per unit volume of concrete may be selected from the table given below.
Maximum water content per cubic meter of concrete for nominal maximum size of aggregate 

Sl.No. 
Nominal maximum size of aggregate 
Maximum water content 
1 
10 
208 
2 
20 
186 
3 
40 
165 
The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for angular coarse aggregate and for a slump value in between 25 to 50mm.
Do the following adjustments if the material used differs from the specified condition.
Type of material/condition  Adjustment required 
For sub angular aggregate  Reduce the selected value by 10kg 
For gravel with crushed stone  Reduce the selected value by 20kg 
For rounded gravel  Reduce the selected value by 25kg 
For every addition of 25mm slump  Increase the selected value by 3% 
If using plasticizer  Decrease the selected value by 510% 
If using super plasticizer  Decrease the selected value by 2030% 
Note: Aggregates should be used in saturated surface dry condition. While computing the requirement of mixing water, allowance shall be made for the free surface moisture contributed by the fine and coarse aggregates. On the other hand, if the aggregate are completely dry, the amount of mixing water should be increased by an amount equal to moisture likely to be absorbed by the aggregate
Step6. Calculating Cementious Material Content
From the water cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of cement, calculate the amount of cementious material. After calculating the quantity of cementious material, compare it with the values given in the table shown in Step4. The greater of the two values is then adopted.
If any mineral admixture (such as fly ash) is to be used, then decide the percentage of mineral admixture to be used based on project requirement and quality of material.
Step7. Finding out Volume Proportions for Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to unit volume of total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate is given in the following table.
Sl.No. 
Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate (mm) 
Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate 

Zone IV 
Zone III 
Zone II 
Zone I 

1 
10 
0.50 
0.48 
0.46 
0.44 
2 
20 
0.66 
0.64 
0.62 
0.60 
3 
40 
0.75 
0.73 
0.71 
0.69 
The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for a watercement ratio of 0.5 and based on aggregates in saturated surface dry condition.
If watercement ratio other than 0.5 is to be used then apply correction using the rule given below.
Rule: For every increase or decrease by 0.05 in watercement ratio, the above values will be decreased or increased by 0.01, respectively.
If the placement of concrete is done by a pump or where is required to be worked around congested reinforcing steel, it may be desirable to reduce the estimated coarse aggregate content determined as above, upto 10 percent.
After calculating volume of coarse aggregate, subtract it from 1, to find out the volume of fine aggregate.
Step8. Mix Calculations
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be done as follows.
a  Volume of concrete=  1m^{3} 
b  Volume of cement=  (Mass of cement/specific gravity of cement)*(1/1000) 
c  Volume of water=  (Mass of water/specific gravity of water)*(1/1000) 
d  Volume of admixture=  (Mass of admixture/specific gravity of admixture)*(1/1000) 
e  Volume of total aggregate (C.A+F.A)=  [a(b+c+d)] 
f  Mass of coarse aggregate=  e*Volume of coarse aggregate*specific gravity of coarse aggregate*1000 
g  Mass of fine aggregate=  e*Volume of fine aggregate*specific gravity of fine aggregate*1000 
Step9. Trial Mix
Conduct a trial mix as per the amount of material calculated above.
Step10. Measurement of Workability (by slump cone method)
The workability of the trial mix no.1 shall be measured. The mix shall be carefully observed for freedom from segregation and bleeding and its finishing properties.
Step11. Repeating Trial Mixes
If the measured workability of trial mix no.1 is different from stipulated value, the water and/or admixture content shall be adjusted suitably. With this adjustment, the mix proportion shall be recalculated keeping the free watercement ratio at preselected value.
Trial2 – increase water or admixture, keeping watercement ratio constant
Trial3 – Keep water content same as trial2, but increase watercement ratio by 10%.
Trial4 – Keep water content same as trial2, but decrease watercement ratio by 10%
Trial mix no 2 to 4 normally provides sufficient information, including the relationship between compressive strength and watercement ratio.
under step:3,u have mentioned in the table that the standard deviation for design mix of the grades of concrete from M30 to M55 as 6,whereas the IS456:2000 has specified the standard deviation 5 only for the above grades of concrete.please verify and correct the same.
Pl. Give always me detail information @ civil engineering materials testing, mix design of concrete, bitumen all test including design of Bm, sdbc.
Dear Sir,
How to get the Design Mix for M30 concrete Recommended proportion of various ingradient
Hi sir, very good and useful article.
sir, i have one doubt. if i using over dry aggregates(or fully dried aggregates) what is the correction for water content and aggregate weights correction? kindly clarify my doubt.
thanks in advance,
Best wishes.
for m15 grade concrete 45mpa strength is this possible???
What’s proportion of M45 grade concrete?
maximume alloweble admixture percentage in grade 30 concrete
helllo sir,
sir plz tell me what is proper ratio m40 strngth to use paver block?
Sir im manu,
plz tell me the design mix of concrete for paver block of M40 strngth. Material should be on Kg. Unit.
Sir plz tell me the design mix of concrete for paver block of M40 strngth. Material should be on Kg. Unit.
Got assisted
Dear Suryakanta,
Could you please let me know in normal twostoreyed building, roof is casted with which grade of concrete(M15 or M20 etc.)?
I am the manufacturer of paver tiles and rcc slab manufacturer. I want the proper ratio of m.30 and m.40
How to find the design ratio like 1:2:4 for various proportions like M30,M40..??
what is the suitable fine aggregate zone for M55 grade concrete.
M30,M35,M40,M45,M50 wHAT rATIO
very useful
Great Thanks for the valuable method of mix design
could you please send me the required degree of workability and/or slump and the entrapped air
Sir plz tell me the design mix of concrete for paver block of M40 strngth. Material should be on Kg. Unit.
why water absorption and surface moisture is not included in is 102622009(new code) ?
for M 30, M40 based on which code need to be design new code or old code ?
THIS CONTENT IS GOOD TO DETERMINE THE PROPORTION OF CONCTRETE GRADE.