# WATER ABSORPTION & BULK DENSITY TEST OF TILES [IS-13630-PART-2]

|## Objective

Determination of water absorption and bulk density of all ceramic tiles

## Apparatus

- Oven – capable of maintaining temp of about 110
^{0}c - Balance – accurate to 0.01% of the mass of test specimen
- Water bath
- Desiccators
- Chamois leather
- Wire basket

## Preparation of Test Sample

- A test sample consists of 10 numbers of whole tiles. If the surface area of individual tile specimen is greater than 0.04m
^{2}, then the numbers of tile specimens in a sample can be reduced to 5. - When the mass of each individual tile is below 50 g, then take sufficient number of tiles, so that each test specimen weighs 50g to 100g.
- If the dimension of tile is longer than 200 mm, then it may be cut up, but include the cut pieces in the measurement.

## Test Procedure

- Dry the tiles in the oven at 110±5
^{0}C, until it attains constant mass, i.e. when the difference between two successive weighing at intervals of 24 h is less than 0.1%. - Cool the tiles in the desiccators over silica gel, until cooled to room temperature.
- Weigh each tile specimen and record the weight of individual test specimen (i.e.
**m1**) in the observation sheet. - Place the tiles vertically, with no contact between them, in water in the water bath so that there is a depth of 50 mm water above and below the tiles. Maintain the water level 50 mm above the tiles throughout the test.
- Heat the water until boiling and continue to boil for 2 h. After 2 h, switch off the source of heat and allow the tiles to cool, still completely immersed in this water, over night.
- Remove the tiles from the water bath and remove the surface water from the tiles pieces by chamois leather.
- Immediately weigh each tile and record the weight (i.e.
**m2**) in the observation sheet. - Now place the specimens in the wire basket that is immersed in water and determine the weight of each specimen to the nearest 0.01g.

## Calculation

### 1. Water Absorption

For each tile, calculate the water absorption in percentage (to the first decimal place) of the dry mass using the following formula.

**Water absorption (%) = [(m2 – m1) / m1] * 100**

Where,

m1 = mass of the dry tile, in g

m2 = mass of the wet tile, in g

Calculate the average water absorption of the sample as the average of the individual result.

### 2. Bulk Density

Bulk density (B), in g/cm^{3}, of a specimen is the ratio of its dry mass divided by the exterior volume, including pores. Calculate bulk density of tile as follow.

**B = m1 / V**

Where,

B = bulk density of tile, g/cm^{3}

m1 = mass of dry tile, g

V = exterior volume, in cm^{3}: = **(m2 – m3)**

m3 = mass of suspended tile impregnated by boiling water method, in g

Calculate the average bulk density of the sample as the average of the individual result.

## Reporting

The test report should contain the following.

- Description of the tiles
- Water absorption & bulk density of each tile specimen
- water absorption and bulk density

## Reference

**IS: 13630 (Part-****2)** – ceramic tiles – methods of tests, sampling and basis for acceptance [Part 2 – determination of water absorption & bulk density]

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