Site selection has an important bearing on planning and designing of buildings. Generally, therefore, an architect has either to make a choice of suitable site or to plan his building structure to suit the available site.
Factors to Consider During Selection of Building Site
Natural defects of a site will involve considerable expenditure on construction and maintenance of the building. While unsatisfactory conditions in the neighborhood of locality will cause unhappy living conditions on one hand and possible deterioration of the value of property on the other.
Therefore the following general factors should be considered while selecting a site for building construction.
1. Purpose of Building
This is the most important factor to consider before purchasing or selecting a site for residential purpose. The site should be selected keeping in view the general scope or the purpose of building and on the basis of extent or privacy required.
2. Friendly Neighborhood
The site should be situated in locality which is already fully developed or which is fast developing. To secure happy living conditions, generally such neighborhood is preferred where the neighbors belong to an equal status in society and who should be social and friendly.
3. Available Facilities
The plot should be in a locality where the various facilities as mentioned below are available.
Community services such as police and fire protection, clearing of waste and street cleaning
Utility services such as water supply, gas, electricity, and drainage
Amenities such as schools, hospitals, libraries, recreation, telephone, etc
Means of transportation
4. Government Laws
A site which comes within the limits of an area where the by-laws of the local authority enforce restrictions regarding proportions of plots to be built up, vacant spaces to be left in front and sides, heights of buildings, etc., should be preferred.
5. Shape & Size
Area of the plot of land should be such that the house constructed, keeping in view the restrictions of the local authority, would meet the requirements of the owner, preferably with possibilities of future extensions. The site should not be irregular in shape or having any sharp corners.
6. Terrain Condition
The site should be situated on an elevated place and also leveled with uniform slopes from one end to the other so as to provide good and quick drainage of rain water.
7. Type of Ground Soil
The ground soil of the site should be good enough to provide economical foundations for the intended building without causing and problems. Generally, for most satisfactory constructions, the site should have rock, sand or dense soil below 60 to 120 cm layer of light soil or even black cotton soil.
8. Natural Light & Air
The location of the site should be such as to ensure unobstructed natural light and air.
9. Environmental Condition
The site should be available in a locality where natural beauty and man-made environment create healthy living and working conditions. Environment also affected by nearest factories, kiln etc: so these thing also need to be considered.
10. Legal & Financial Aspects
The legal and financial aspects, which dictate upon ownership rights and the costs, should be given due consideration before the purchase of a plot.
11. Other Factors
A site should be abandoned under adverse circumstances such as unhealthy, noisy or crowded localities; immediate neighborhood or rivers carrying heavy floods, badly maintained drains; reclaimed soils or water logged areas, subject to submergence or settlement and; industrial vicinity having smoke and obnoxious odors.