# FINENESS MODULUS OF AGGREGATE – WHAT, WHY & HOW

September 1, 2014 | Aggregate, Concrete Technology, How To, Materials, Tests On Aggregate | 23 Comments

| **What is Fineness Modulus of Aggregate?**

Fineness modulus is an empirical factor obtained by adding the cumulative percentages of aggregate retained on each of the standard sieves ranging from 80 mm to 150 micron and dividing this sum by 100.

**Why to Determine Fineness Modulus?**

- Fineness modulus is generally used to get an idea of how coarse or fine the aggregate is. More fineness modulus value indicates that the aggregate is coarser and small value of fineness modulus indicates that the aggregate is finer.
- Fineness modulus of different type of sand is as per given below.

Type of Sand |
Fineness Modulus Range |

Fine Sand | 2.2 – 2.6 |

Medium Sand | 2.6 – 2.9 |

Coarse Sand | 2.9 – 3.2 |

- Generally sand having fineness modulus more than 3.2 is not used for making good concrete.
- Fineness modulus can also be used to combine two aggregate to get the desirable grading.

**How to Determine Fineness Modulus?**

Following procedure is adopted to calculate fineness modulus of aggregate.

**Procedure**

- Sieve the aggregate using the appropriate sieves (80 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 micron, 300 micron & 150 micron)
- Record the weight of aggregate retained on each sieve.
- Calculate the cumulative weight of aggregate retained on each sieve.
- Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate retained.
- Add the cumulative weight of aggregate retained and divide the sum by 100. This value is termed as fineness modulus
- Refer the following example calculation

**Fineness Modulus of Sand – Worked Out Example**

Example Calculation of Fineness Modulus of Fine Aggregate

Sieve Size |
Weight of sand Retained (g) |
Cumulative weight of sand retained (g) |
Cumulative percentage of sand retained (%) |

80 mm | – | – | – |

40 mm | – | – | – |

20 mm | – | – | – |

10 mm | 0 | 0 | 0 |

4.75 mm | 10 | 10 | 2 |

2.36 mm | 50 | 60 | 12 |

1.18 mm | 50 | 110 | 22 |

600 micron | 95 | 205 | 41 |

300 micron | 175 | 380 | 76 |

150 micron | 85 | 465 | 93 |

Pan | 35 | 500 | |

Total amount = | 500 | Total
= 246 |

So **Fineness Modulus = 246/100 = 2.46**

23 Comments

why we calculate cumulative %

great work sir keep it up .

and what is grading modules GM and how is applied

Good to share and interacts as engineers. No one is perfect.

Your engineering contributions are highly welcome. It adds more to my knowledge because no one has complete knowledge of material engineering

In Todays world, Fineness modulus is not used for getting idea about fineness on material. it is also omitted from IS Code.

More ever this value wont make any sense as it can get manipulated easily and it can show sand as fine but in reality its a coarse and vice a versa.

I think it was used before 1969 or till 1980, after which the designers wont care much about it.

Sir we want know why it is used what is the uses

sir I want to know that what is the finessess module of aggregate . And what is the limit of f .m of aggregate ( 20 mm ).

Fitness modulus of coarse aggregate with maximum size 20 mm is 6.00 -6.90

Fitness modulus of mixed aggregate with maximum size 20 mm is 4.70 -5.10

why does’t the % from the pan contents form part of the calculation?

Nice bro…………..

What is the IS CODE of fineness modulus

Nice

its easy way to learn…

Thanks. Very useful.

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can anybody tell me the inference for that??

to what standard did u perform your test and drew the conclusion

what is difference between grading modulus and fineness modulus

One doubt

ITS VERY USFULL

THANK YOU

Can any body tell me that what is the reference of finess modules in ashto? Plz

Nice