Main fire protection requirements for multi-storied buildings can be summarized as under.
- The structural framework can be in R.C.C or steel. In case of steel structure, it will be necessary to encase the structural components by tiles, concrete or bricks.
- The fire resistance of load bearing walls, columns and beams should not be less than two hours.
2. Internal Walls & Partitions
- Internal walls could be in brick, hollow concrete blocks, tiles or timber.
- The materials of the wall should, however, be treated in such a manner that they should have fire resistance of not less than one hour.
- The enclosing walls of the main staircase should have a fire resistance of not less than one hour.
- The staircase enclosure should be of self contained type with one side preferably being adjacent to an external wall.
- Staircase should not be arranged around the lift shaft.
- Access to the staircase should be through doors having fire resistance of at least half-an-hour. The doors should be of swing type opening in the direction of the escape.
- The door of the staircase enclosure at ground floor should open out into an open space.
- Adequate number of staircases should be provided to meet the travel distance requirements of the type of building.
4. Fire Escape or External Stairs
- In addition to the main staircase it is necessary to make suitable provision of fire escape in the form of external stairs.
- All fire escapes should be directly connected to ground floor and their entrance should be away from the internal staircase of the building.
- The basement should be properly ventilated.
- The main staircase of the building should preferably terminate at ground floor and as far as possible the access to basement should be through a separate staircase.
- The staircase of basement should be of enclosed type and should have fire resistance of not less than two hours.
- In case the basement is to be used for car parking, installation of electric sub-station, storage of combustible material, etc it is necessary to install sprinkler system for extinguishing fire.
6. Water Storage Tank
- There should be a provision of an underground water storage tank of 100,000 to 200,000 liters capacity exclusively meant for firefighting purposes.
- The tank should have arrangement of replenishment of the water either by municipal means or by tube well.
7. Fire Detection and Extinguishing System
- All multi storied buildings should have adequate provision for fire detection and fire extinguishing system.