Based on the composition, additives, surfaces, manufacturing technique, or type of reinforcing, distinctions between several types of concrete are made.
A reinforced concrete building’s planning and design are constantly impacted by this.
For instance, according on the type of concrete being used, some building components must be built or maintained differently.
There are a wide variety of different types of concrete. They are differentiated according to several criteria:
1. Normal concrete
This is a common type of concrete used most frequently in any RCC construction work.
2. Lightweight concrete
Adding coarse, light gravel to concrete creates this sort of concrete. Better insulating qualities are present in this form of concrete. They are lighter and have less strength.
3. Aerated concrete
A kind of lightweight concrete. Instead of aggregate, aerated concrete contains air bubbles, which are produced through a chemical process and further improve the insulating qualities.
4. Heavy concrete
Made with particularly heavy aggregate (e.g. barite, iron ore, steel granulate etc.) with high dry unit weight. This is used for protection against radiation or similar type of structures.
5. Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC)
Uses furnace cement instead of Portland cement. It has very high strength, and good durability. This allows slender design, saves resources and can be used economically.
6. Water-impermeable concrete
Concrete with a high resistance to the entry of water, used above all to seal building parts in the ground
7. Waterproof concrete
Similar to water-impermeable concrete, addition of barriers.
8. Self-compacting concrete
Addition of plasticiser, no additional compacting necessary, finely pored surface and complex geometries possible.
9. Translucent concrete
Glass optical fibers are introduced into the fine concrete. Depending on their density and arrangement they create patterns and enable the concrete to become translucent.
10. Refractory concrete
This type of concrete can withstands temperatures from 500 to 2000 °C.
11. Recycled concrete
This type of concrete is made with aggregate produced from recycled materials (e.g. building rubble)
12. Concrete screed
In this type of concrete small aggregate are used. Smaller size aggregate allow thin layers to be made. Normally used for making floor layers.
13. Prestressed concrete
Steel reinforcement is pre-stretched creating a high compressive stress. The properties of concrete are better exploited, more efficient building parts are produced. The stiffness prevents major deflection even with large spans.
14. Textile concrete
Composite material with low thickness and high resistance to compression and deflection. Flexible forms possible through reinforcing materials.
15. Fiber concrete
This type of concrete is made with fibers. Fibers can be made of plastic, glass fiber, carbon, natural fibres or similar.
16. Self-cleaning concrete
The surface is treated with photocatalytically effective metal oxides or sulphides. The self-cleansing, pollutant disintegrating effect is achieved by light. In addition, the surface must by super-hydrophobe (water repellent) or super-hydrophile (water-attractive).
17. Exposed (fair-faced) concrete
Smooth, fine-pored surface, generally produced as a prefabricated part.
18. Tamped or compressed concrete
Unreinforced, historic method of use produced layer by layer, compacted by tamping. High density, hardly any shrinking, few cracks.
19. Spun concrete
For tubes, piles or masts, compacted by a rapidly rotating steel formwork, low w/c value, very solid, dense concrete. Hollow cross sections are created that can also be used to take service runs.
20. Sprayed concrete
Is particularly flowable and hardens quickly. Applied through a spray nozzle using pressurized air. This type of concrete is very easy to apply over a wide area because of spraying.
21. Vacuum concrete
Introduction of the fresh concrete by means of a vacuum. In this type of concrete surface water is suctioned off and a dense surface with few cracks is created.